Datong Calendar for the 31st Year of the Yongli Reign (1677)

Photo source: Bodleian Library Sinica 88


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Note: The images shown below have been cropped and resized from the originals. Only a few pages containing the information of conjunctions, intercalary months and solar terms are shown here. The digital version of the whole book can be obtained from the source link above.


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cover


Text

大 明 永 曆 三 十 年 大 統 曆


皇曆未至本藩權依

  大統曆法命官考訂刊行俾

中興臣子咸知

正朔用是為識


Translation

The book title is Datong Calendar for the Thirty-First Year of the Yongli Reign in the Great Ming Dynasty.

The text roughly states that the emperor's calendar for the year had not arrived and the Prince of Yanping (governor of the Zheng state) expediently ordered officials to produce and promulgate the calendar according to the Datong system, so that the civilians under his governance could use it for their daily lives.

Note: The emperor's calendar of the Southern Ming dynasty was no longer produced after the death of the Youngli emperor in 1662. The statement may be interpreted as Zheng's expressing his loyal sentiment towards the formal emperor of the Southern Ming dynasty.



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Text


大明永曆三十一年歲次丁巳大統曆
正月大戊寅初三日庚辰酉初三刻立春正月節十八日乙未夜子初初刻雨水正月中
二月小戊申初四日辛亥寅正一刻京直二月節十九日丙寅巳初二刻春分二月中
三月大丁丑初五日辛巳未正三刻清明三月節二十日丙申戌正初刻谷雨三月中
四月小丁未初六日壬子丑初一刻立夏四月節廿一日丁卯卯正二刻小滿四月中
五月大丙子初七日壬午午初三刻芒種五月節廿二日丁酉酉初初刻夏至五月中
六月大丙午初七日壬子亥正一刻小暑六月節廿三日戊辰寅初二刻大暑六月中
七月小丙子初八日癸未辰正三刻立秋七月節廿三日戊戌未正初刻處暑七月中
八月大乙巳初九日癸丑戌初一刻白露八月節廿五日己巳子正二刻秋分八月中
九月小乙亥初十日甲申卯初三刻寒露九月節廿五日己亥午初初刻霜降九月中
十月大甲辰十一日甲寅申正一刻立冬十月節廿六日己巳亥初二刻小雪十月中
十一月小甲戌十二日乙酉丑正三刻大雪十一月節廿七日庚子辰初四刻冬至十一月中
十二月大癸卯十三日乙卯未初初刻小寒十二月節廿八日庚午酉正一刻大寒十二月中
凡三百五十五日 (divination content omitted)

Translation

Calendar Dates for the 31st Year of the
Yongli Reign (sexagenary year Ding Si)
1 LWu YinJ1: 3, Geng Chen, (17,3)Z1: 18, Yi Wei, (23,0)
2 SWu ShenJ2: 4, Xin Hai, (4,1)Z2: 19, Bing Yin, (9,2)
3 LDing ChouJ3: 5, Xin Si, (14,3)Z3: 20, Bing Shen, (20,0)
4 SDing WeiJ4: 6, Ren Zi (1,1)Z4: 21, Ding Mao, (6,2)
5 LBing ZiJ5: 7, Ren Wu, (11,3)Z5: 22, Ding You, (17,0)
6 LBing WuJ6: 7, Ren Zi, (22,1)Z6: 23, Wu Chen, (3,2)
7 SBing ZiJ7: 8, Gui Wei, (8,3)Z7: 23, Wu Xu, (14,0)
8 LYi SiJ8: 9, Gui Chou, (19,1)Z8: 25, Ji Si, (0,2)
9 SYi HaiJ9: 10, Jia Shen, (5,3)Z9: 25, Ji Hai, (11,0)
10 LJia ChenJ10: 11, Jia Yin, (16,1)Z10, 26, Ji Si, (21,2)
11 SJia XuJ11: 12, Yi You, (2,3)Z11: 27, Geng Zi (7,4)
12 LGui MaoJ12: 13, Yi Mao, (13,0)Z12: 28, Geng Wu, (18,1)
Total Number of Days: 355 (divination content omitted)

Column Description

  1. The first column is the Chinese month number followed by either S (short month) or L (long month). The S months had 29 days and L months had 30 days. The total number of days in the year was therefore 30NL + 29NS, where NL is the number of L months and NS is the number of S months. The calculated number matches the value given in the last row of the table.
  2. The second column gives the sexagenary date cycle of the first day (conjunction day) in the Chinese month.
  3. The last two columns list the dates and times of the solar terms in the year.
    • Solar terms are labelled using the convention on the solar term page. They are shorthand notations of the alternative Chinese names. For example, Z5 refers to the Zhongqi (major solar term) associated with month 5 (五月中), which is Summer Solstice (夏至); J6 refers to the Jieqi (minor solar term) associated with month 6 (六月節), which is Slight Heat (小暑).
    • The date of a solar term is given by a number indicating the date in the Chinese month and the sexagenary date cycle. For example, "J2: 4, Xin Hai" means that J2 was on the 4th day (of month 2) and its sexagenary date cycle was Xin Hai.
    • Time is indicated by two numbers (x,y), where x is an integer between 0 and 23 and y is an integer between 0 and 4. If y≠4, (x,y) means that the time is between 14.4y minutes and 14.4(y+1) minutes past x o'clock. If y=4, (x,y) means that the time is between 57.6 minutes past x o'clock and (x+1) o'clock. For exampe, (20,3) refers to the time interval between 20:43:12 and 20:57:36; (2,4) refers to the time interval between 2:57:36 and 3:00:00.
    • Hence, "J10: 11, Jia Yin, (16,1)" in the 10L row means that J10 occurred in the time interval between 16:14:24 and 16:28:48 on the 11th day of month 10 and the sexagenary date cycle was Jia Yin. This date corresponds to November 5th, 1677 in the Gregorian calendar.

Note:According to the calculation of the Datong system, the conjunction associated with the 7th month was on a Yi Hai day (July 29th, 1677), which was one day earlier than the Bing Zi day (July 30th, 1677) given in the calendar. All other conjunction days in the calendar match the calculation of the Datong system. The dates and times of all solar terms in the calendar agree with the calculation of the Datong system.



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The last row in the photo is omitted in the following table.

紀年

三十一年丁巳土一歲蛇男五宮女七宮
三十年丙辰土二歲龍男六宮女六宮
廿九年乙卯水三歲兔男七宮女五宮閏六月
廿八年甲寅水四歲虎男八宮女四宮
廿七年癸丑木五歲牛男九宮女三宮
廿六年壬子木六歲鼠男一宮女二宮閏八月
廿五年辛亥金七歲豬男二宮女一宮
廿四年庚戌金八歲狗男三宮女九宮
廿三年己酉土九歲雞男四宮女八宮閏十二月
廿二年戊申土十歲猴男五宮女七宮
廿一年丁未水十一歲羊男六宮女六宮閏四月
二十年丙午水十二歲馬男七宮女五宮
十九年乙巳火十三歲蛇男八宮女四宮
十八年甲辰火十四歲龍男九宮女三宮閏六月
十七年癸卯金十五歲兔男一宮女二宮
十六年壬寅金十六歲虎男二宮女一宮
十五年辛丑土十七歲牛男三宮女九宮閏十月
十四年庚子土十八歲鼠男四宮女八宮
十三年己亥木十九歲豬男五宮女七宮閏正月
十二年戊戌木二十歲狗男六宮女六宮
十一年丁酉火廿一歲雞男七宮女五宮
十年丙申火廿二歲猴男八宮女四宮閏五月
九年乙未金廿三歲羊男九宮女三宮
八年甲午金廿四歲馬男一宮女二宮
七年癸巳水廿五歲蛇男二宮女一宮閏八月
六年壬辰水廿六歲龍男三宮女九宮
五年辛卯木廿七歲兔男四宮女八宮
四年庚寅木廿八歲虎男五宮女七宮閏十二月
三年己丑火廿九歲牛男六宮女六宮
二年戊子火三十歲鼠男七宮女五宮閏三月
元年丁亥土三一歲豬男八宮女四宮

Translation

The following table omits columns 4-6.

ReignYearSexagenary YearLeap Month
Yongli31stDing Si
30thBing Chen
29thYi Mao6
28thJia Yin
27thGui Chou
26thRen Zi8
25thXin Hai
24thGeng Xu
23rdJi You12
22ndWu Shen
21stDing Wei4
20thBing Wu
19thYi Si
18thJia Chen6
17thGui Mao
16thRen Yin
15thXin Chou10
14thGeng Zi
13thJi Hai1
12thWu Xu
11thDing You
10thBing Shen5
9thYi Wei
8thJia Wu
7thGui Si8
6thRen Chen
5thXin Mao
4thGeng Yin12
3rdJi Chou
2ndWu Zi3
1stDing Hai

According to the calculation of the Datong system, the leap month in the 4th, 7th and 29th year of the Yongli reign were after the 11th, 7th and 5th month, respectively, and they are inconsistent with this table. Surprisingly, in the calendar for the 25th year of the Yongli reign, the leap month in the 7th year of the Yongli reign is recorded to be after the 6th month, inconsistent with both this table and the calculation of the Datong system.