Datong Calendar for the 25th Year of the Yongli Reign (1671)

Photo source: Bodleian Library Sinica 58


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Note: The images shown below have been cropped and resized from the originals. Only a few pages containing the information of conjunctions, intercalary months and solar terms are shown here. The digital version of the whole book can be obtained from the source link above.


Photo

cover


Text

大 明 中 興 永 曆 二 十 五 年 大 統 曆


嗣藩 頒製

皇曆遙頒未至本藩權宜命官依

  大統曆法考正刊行俾

中興臣子咸知

正朔海內士民均沾厥福用是為識


Translation

The book title is Datong Calendar for the Twenty-Fifth Year of the Yongli Reign in the Great Ming Dynasty.

The text roughly states that the emperor's calendar for the year had not arrived and the Prince of Yanping (governor of the Zheng state) expediently ordered officials to produce and promulgate the calendar according to the Datong system, so that the civilians under his governance could use it for their daily lives.

Note: The emperor's calendar of the Southern Ming dynasty was no longer produced after the death of the Youngli emperor in 1662. The statement may be interpreted as Zheng's expressing his loyal sentiment towards the formal emperor of the Southern Ming dynasty.



Photos

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Text

大明永曆二十五年歲次辛亥大統曆
正月小甲寅十一日甲子午正初刻雨水正月中廿六日己卯酉初一刻京直二月節
二月小癸未十二日甲午亥正二刻春分二月中廿八日庚戌寅初三刻清明三月節
三月大壬子十四日乙丑巳初初刻谷雨三月中廿九日庚辰未正一刻立夏四月節
四月小壬午十四日乙未戌初二刻小滿四月中
五月小辛亥初一日辛亥子正三刻芒種五月節十六日丙寅卯正初刻夏至五月中
六月大庚辰初二日辛巳午初一刻小暑六月節十七日丙申申正二刻大暑六月中
七月小庚戌初二日辛亥亥初三刻立秋七月節十八日丁卯寅初初刻處暑七月中
八月大己卯初四日壬午辰正一刻白露八月節十九日丁酉未初二刻秋分八月中
九月大己酉初四日壬子酉正三刻寒露九月節二十日戊辰子正初刻霜降九月中
十月小己卯初五日癸未卯初一刻立冬十月節二十日戊戌巳正二刻小雪十月中
十一月大戊申初六日癸丑申初三刻大雪十一月節廿一日戊辰亥初初刻冬至十一月中
十二月大戊寅初七日甲申丑正一刻小寒十二月節廿二日己亥辰初二刻大寒十二月中
凡三百五十四日 (divination content omitted)

Translation

Calendar Dates for the 25th Year of the
Yongli Reign (sexagenary year Xin Hai)
1 SJia YinZ1: 11, Jia Zi, (12,0)J2: 26, Ji Mao, (17,1)
2 SGui WeiZ2: 12, Jia Wu, (22, 2)J3: 28, Geng Xu, (3,3)
3 LRen ZiZ3: 14, Yi Chou, (9,0)J4: 29, Geng Chen, (14,1)
4 SRen WuZ4: 14, Yi Wei, (19,2)
5 SXin HaiJ5: 1, Xin Hai, (0,3)Z5: 16, Bing Yin, (6,0)
6 LGeng ChenJ6: 2, Xin Si, (11,1)Z6: 17, Bing Shen, (16,2)
7 SGeng XuJ7: 2, Xin Hai, (21,3)Z7: 18, Ding Mao, (3,0)
8 LJi MaoJ8: 4, Ren Wu, (8,1)Z8: 19, Ding You, (13,2)
9 LJi YouJ9: 4, Ren Zi, (18,3)Z9: 20, Wu Chen, (0,0)
10 SJi MaoJ10: 5, Gui Wei, (5,1)Z10: 20, Wu Xu, (10,2)
11 LWu ShenJ11: 6, Gui Chou, (15,3)Z112: 21, Wu Chen, (21,0)
12 LWu YinJ12: 7, Jia Shen, (2,1)Z12: 22, Ji Hai, (7,2)
Total Number of Days: 354 (divination content omitted)

Column Description

  1. The first column is the Chinese month number followed by either S (short month) or L (long month). The S months had 29 days and L months had 30 days. The total number of days in the year was therefore 30NL + 29NS, where NL is the number of L months and NS is the number of S months. The calculated number matches the value given in the last row of the table.
  2. The second column gives the sexagenary date cycle of the first day (conjunction day) in the Chinese month.
  3. The last two columns list the dates and times of the solar terms in the year.
    • Solar terms are labelled using the convention on the solar term page. They are shorthand notations of the alternative Chinese names. For example, Z5 refers to the Zhongqi (major solar term) associated with month 5 (五月中), which is Summer Solstice (夏至); J6 refers to the Jieqi (minor solar term) associated with month 6 (六月節), which is Slight Heat (小暑).
    • The date of a solar term is given by a number indicating the date in the Chinese month and the sexagenary date cycle. For example, "J2: 26, Ji Mao" means that J2 was on the 26th day (of month 1) and its sexagenary date cycle was Ji Mao.
    • Time is indicated by two numbers (x,y), where x is an integer between 0 and 23 and y is an integer between 0 and 4. If y≠4, (x,y) means that the time is between 14.4y minutes and 14.4(y+1) minutes past x o'clock. If y=4, (x,y) means that the time is between 57.6 minutes past x o'clock and (x+1) o'clock. For exampe, (20,3) refers to the time interval between 20:43:12 and 20:57:36; (2,4) refers to the time interval between 2:57:36 and 3:00:00.
    • Hence, "J10: 5, Gui Wei, (5,1)" in the 10S row means that J10 occurred in the time interval between 5:14:24 and 5:28:48 on the 5th day of month 10 and the sexagenary date cycle was Gui Wei. This date corresponds to November 6th, 1671 in the Gregorian calendar.

Note: According to the calculation of the Datong system, The conjunction associated with the first month (New Year day) was on a Gui Chou day (February 9th, 1671), which was one day earlier than the Jia Yin day (February 10th, 1671) indicated in the calendar. The other conjunction dates in the calendar match the calculation of the Datong system. All the dates and times of solar terms given in the calendar agree with the calculation of the Datong system.



Photos

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Text

The last row in the photo is omitted in the following table.

紀年

廿五年辛亥金一歲豬男二宮女一宮
廿四年庚戌金二歲狗男三宮女九宮
廿三年己酉土三歲雞男四宮女八宮閏十二月
廿二年戊申土四歲猴男五宮女七宮
廿一年丁未水五歲羊男六宮女六宮閏四月
二十年丙午水六歲馬男七宮女五宮
十九年乙巳火七歲蛇男八宮女四宮
十八年甲辰火八歲龙男九宮女三宮閏六月
十七年癸卯金九歲兔男一宮女二宮
十六年壬寅金十歲虎男二宮女一宮
十五年辛丑土十一歲牛男三宮女九宮閏十月
十四年庚子土十二歲鼠男四宮女八宮
十三年己亥木十三歲豬男五宮女七宮閏正月
十二年戊戌木十四歲狗男六宮女六宮
十一年丁酉火十五歲雞男七宮女五宮
十年丙申火十六歲猴男八宮女四宮閏五月
九年乙未金十七歲羊男九宮女三宮
八年甲午金十八歲馬男一宮女二宮
七年癸巳水十九歲蛇男二宮女一宮閏六月
六年壬辰水二十歲龍男三宮女九宮
五年辛卯木廿一歲兔男四宮女八宮
四年庚寅木廿二歲虎男五宮女七宮閏十二月
三年己丑火廿三歲牛男六宮女六宮
二年戊子火廿四歲鼠男七宮女五宮閏三月
元年丁亥土廿五歲豬男八宮女四宮

二年丙戌土廿六歲狗男九宮女三宮
元年乙酉水廿七歲雞男一宮女二宮閏六月

十七年甲申水廿八歲猴男二宮女一宮
十六年癸未水廿九歲羊男三宮女九宮
十五年壬午木三十歲馬男四宮女八宮閏十一月
十四年辛巳金卅一歲蛇男五宮女七宮

Translation

The following table omits columns 4-6.

ReignYearSexagenary YearLeap Month
Yongli25thXin Hai
24thGeng Xu
23rdJi You12
22ndWu Shen
21stDing Wei4
20thBing Wu
19thYi Si
18thJia Chen6
17thGui Mao
16thRen Yin
15thXin Chou10
14thGeng Zi
13thJi Hai1
12thWu Xu
11thDing You
10thBing Shen5
9thYi Wei
8thJia Wu
7thGui Si6
6thRen Chen
5thXin Mao
4thGeng Yin12
3rdJi Chou
2ndWu Zi3
1stDing Hai
Longwu2ndBing Xu
1stYi You6
Chongzhen17thJia Shen
16thGui Wei
15thRen Wu11
14thXin Si

According to the calculation of the Datong system, the leap months in the 4th and 7th year of the Yongli reign were after the 11th and 7th month, respectively, and they are inconsistent with this table. Surprisingly, in the calendar for the 30th year of the Yongli reign and the calendar for the 31st year of the Yongli reign, the leap month in the 7th year of the Yongli reign is recorded to be after the 8th month, inconsistent with both this table and the calculation of the Datong system.