Datong Calendar for the 30th Year of the Yongli Reign (1676)

Photo source: St John's College Library


Photo copyright holder: © St John's College, Cambridge


The following 5 photos are reproduced by permission of the Master and Fellows of St John's College, Cambridge. Please do not post any of the following photos elsewhere without the permission of St John's College, Cambridge.


Note: The images shown below have been cropped and resized from the originals. Only a few pages containing the information of conjunctions, intercalary months and solar terms are shown here. The digital version of the whole book can be obtained from the source link above.



Cover

cover photo
This photo is reproduced by permission of the Master and Fellows of St John's College, Cambridge. Please do not post it elsewhere without the permission of St John's College, Cambridge.


Text

大 明 永 曆 三 十 年 大 統 曆


皇曆未至本藩權依

  大統曆法命官考訂刊行俾

中興臣子咸知

正朔用是為識


Note: The missing characters in the photo are added according to the cover photo of the Datong Calendar for the 31st Year of the Yongli Reign (1677).


Translation

The book title is Datong Calendar for the Thirtieth Year of the Yongli Reign in the Great Ming Dynasty.

The text roughly states that the emperor's calendar for the year had not arrived and the Prince of Yanping (governor of the Zheng state) expediently ordered officials to produce and promulgate the calendar according to the Datong system, so that the civilians under his governance could use it for their daily lives.

Note: The emperor's calendar of the Southern Ming dynasty was no longer produced after the death of the Youngli emperor in 1662. The statement may be interpreted as Zheng's expressing his loyal sentiment towards the formal emperor of the Southern Ming dynasty.



Conjunctions and Solar Terms

Photos:

first page
second page
These two photos are reproduced by permission of the Master and Fellows of St John's College, Cambridge. Please do not post them elsewhere without the permission of St John's College, Cambridge.


Text


大明永曆三十年歲次丙辰大統曆
正月小甲申初七日庚寅酉初一刻雨水正月中廿二日乙巳亥正二刻京直二月節
二月大癸丑初九日辛酉寅初三刻春分二月中廿四日丙子巳初初刻清明三月節
三月大癸未初九日辛卯未正一刻谷雨三月中廿四日丙午戌初二刻立夏四月節
四月小癸丑初十日壬戌子正三刻小滿四月中廿五日丁丑卯正初刻芒種五月節
五月大壬午十一日壬辰午初一刻夏至五月中廿六日丁未申正二刻小暑六月節
六月小壬子十一日壬戌亥初三刻大暑六月中廿七日戊寅丑正四刻立秋七月節
七月大辛巳十三日癸巳辰正初刻處暑七月中廿八日戊申未初一刻白露八月節
八月小辛亥十三日癸亥酉正二刻秋分八月中廿八日戊寅夜子初三刻寒露九月節
九月大庚辰十五日甲午卯初初刻霜降九月中三十日己酉巳正一刻立冬十月節
十月小庚戌十五日甲子申初二刻小雪十月中
十一月大己卯初一日己卯戌正三刻大雪十一月節十七日乙未丑正初刻冬至十一月中
十二月小己酉初二日庚戌辰初刻小寒十二月節十七日乙丑午正二刻大寒十二月中
凡三百五十四日 (divination content omitted)

Translation

Calendar Dates for the 30th Year of the
Yongli Reign (sexagenary year Bing Chen)
1 SJia ShenZ1: 7, Geng Yin, (17,1)J2: 22, Yi Si, (22,2)
2 LGui ChouZ2: 9, Xin You, (3,3)J3: 24, Bing Zi, (9,0)
3 LGui WeiZ3: 9, Xin Mao, (14,1)J4: 24, Bing Wu, (19,2)
4 SGui ChouZ4: 10, Ren Xu, (0,3)J5: 25, Ding Chou, (6,0)
5 LRen WuZ5: 11, Ren Chen, (11,1)J6: 26, Ding Wei, (16,2)
6 SRen ZiZ6: 11, Ren Xu, (21,3)J7: 27, Wu Yin, (2,4)
7 LXin SiZ7: 13, Gui Si, (8,0)J8: 28, Wu Shen, (13,1)
8 SXin HaiZ8: 13, Gui Hai, (18,2)J9: 28, Wu Yin, (23,3)
9 LGeng ChenZ9: 15, Jia Wu, (5,0)J10: 30, Ji You, (10,1)
10 SGeng XuZ10: 15, Jia Zi, (15,2)
11 LJi MaoJ11: 1, Ji Mao, (20,3)Z11: 17, Yi Wei, (2,0)
12 SJi YouJ12: 2, Geng Xu, (7,?)Z12: 17, Yi Chou, (12,2)
Number of Days: 354 (divination content omitted)

Column Description

  1. The first column is the Chinese month number followed by either S (short month) or L (long month). The S months had 29 days and L months had 30 days. The total number of days in the year was therefore 30NL + 29NS, where NL is the number of L months and NS is the number of S months. The calculated number matches the value given in the last row of the table.
  2. The second column gives the sexagenary date cycle of the first day (conjunction day) in the Chinese month.
  3. The last two columns list the dates and times of the solar terms in the year.
    • Solar terms are labelled using the convention on the solar term page. They are shorthand notations of the alternative Chinese names. For example, Z5 refers to the Zhongqi (major solar term) associated with month 5 (五月中), which is Summer Solstice (夏至); J6 refers to the Jieqi (minor solar term) associated with month 6 (六月節), which is Slight Heat (小暑).
    • The date of a solar term is given by a number indicating the date in the Chinese month and the sexagenary date cycle. For example, "J2: 22, Yi Si" means that J2 was on the 22nd day (of month 1) and its sexagenary date cycle was Yi Si.
    • Time is indicated by two numbers (x,y), where x is an integer between 0 and 23 and y is an integer between 0 and 4. If y≠4, (x,y) means that the time is between 14.4y minutes and 14.4(y+1) minutes past x o'clock. If y=4, (x,y) means that the time is between 57.6 minutes past x o'clock and (x+1) o'clock. For exampe, (20,3) refers to the time interval between 20:43:12 and 20:57:36; (2,4) refers to the time interval between 2:57:36 and 3:00:00.
    • Hence, "J10: 30, Ji You, (10,1)" in the 9L row means that J10 occurred in the time interval between 10:14:24 and 10:28:48 on the 30th day of month 9 and the sexagenary date cycle was Ji You. This date corresponds to November 5th, 1676 in the Gregorian calendar.

Note: There is a number missing in the calendar for the time of J12. According to the calculation of the Datong system, the missing number is 1, making the J12 date and time as 2, Geng Xu, (7,1). The dates and times of other solar terms given in the calendar agree with the calculation of the Datong system. All the conjunction days given in the calendar also agree with the calculation of the Datong system.



List of Previous Years (omit the last two pages)

Photos:

first page
second page
These two photos are reproduced by permission of the Master and Fellows of St John's College, Cambridge. Please do not post them elsewhere without the permission of St John's College, Cambridge.


Text


The last row in the photo is omitted in the following table.

紀年

三十年丙辰土一歲龍男六宮女六宮
廿九年乙卯水二歲兔男七宮女五宮閏六月
廿八年甲寅水三歲虎男八宮女四宮
廿七年癸丑木四歲牛男九宮女三宮
廿六年壬子木五歲鼠男一宮女二宮閏八月
廿五年辛亥金六歲豬男二宮女一宮
廿四年庚戌金七歲狗男三宮女九宮
廿三年己酉土八歲雞男四宮女八宮閏十二月
廿二年戊申土九歲猴男五宮女七宮
廿一年丁未水十歲羊男六宮女六宮閏四月
二十年丙午水十一歲馬男七宮女五宮
十九年乙巳火十二歲蛇男八宮女四宮
十八年甲辰火十三歲龍男九宮女三宮閏六月
十七年癸卯金十四歲兔男一宮女二宮
十六年壬寅金十五歲虎男二宮女一宮
十五年辛丑土十六歲牛男三宮女九宮閏十月
十四年庚子土十七歲鼠男四宮女八宮
十三年己亥木十八歲豬男五宮女七宮閏正月
十二年戊戌木十九歲狗男六宮女六宮
十一年丁酉火二十歲雞男七宮女五宮
十年丙申火廿一歲猴男八宮女四宮閏五月
九年乙未金廿二歲羊男九宮女三宮
八年甲午金廿三歲馬男一宮女二宮
七年癸巳水廿四歲蛇男二宮女一宮閏八月
六年壬辰水廿五歲龍男三宮女九宮
五年辛卯木廿六歲兔男四宮女八宮
四年庚寅木廿七歲虎男五宮女七宮閏十二月
三年己丑火廿八歲牛男六宮女六宮
二年戊子火廿九歲鼠男七宮女五宮閏三月
元年丁亥土三十歲豬男八宮女四宮
隆武二年丙戌土卅一歲狗男九宮女三宮

Translation

The following table omits columns 4-6.

ReignYearSexagenary YearLeap Month
Yongli30thBing Chen
29thYi Mao6
28thJia Yin
27thGui Chou
26thRen Zi8
25thXin Hai
24thGeng Xu
23rdJi You12
22ndWu Shen
21stDing Wei4
20thBing Wu
19thYi Si
18thJia Chen6
17thGui Mao
16thRen Yin
15thXin Chou10
14thGeng Zi
13thJi Hai1
12thWu Xu
11thDing You
10thBing Shen5
9thYi Wei
8thJia Wu
7thGui Si8
6thRen Chen
5thXin Mao
4thGeng Yin12
3rdJi Chou
2ndWu Zi3
1stDing Hai
Longwu2ndBing Xu

According to the calculation of the Datong system, the leap month in the 4th, 7th and 29th year of the Yongli reign were after the 11th, 7th and 5th month, respectively, and they are inconsistent with this table. Surprisingly, in the calendar for the 25th year of the Yongli reign, the leap month in the 7th year of the Yongli reign is recorded to be after the 6th month, inconsistent with both this table and the calculation of the Datong system.